Harmful oxidation-induced defects of the chip sidewalls are the key challenge in realizing a good quality, high yield mass-production ready microLED display. Poor-quality oxides at the microLED mesa sidewalls and the related disorder-induced atomic-level defects are the biggest source of the SRH type of non-radiative recombination and leakage current. As a result, devices show diminished light output. Furthermore, LED efficiency as a function of the current density drops significantly with the decreasing chip size.
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